Lightbulbs hanging from ceiling

I’ll level with you: “Levels of Work” tips and traps

By Sam Robinson

A useful model that supports people to work well together in an organisation is the concept of “Levels of Work”. Familiar to many, it’s also one of the toughest things to grasp for people new to organisational theory (for an explanation, see the Systems Leadership: Creating Positive Organisations book).

Essentially, Levels of Work proposes that work differs in complexity in organisations and the predominance of a certain level of complexity determines the Level of Work. (When work tasks are grouped together, this is called a “role”.) By complexity, I’m talking about the range and degree of ambiguity in variables having an impact on decision-making.

If you’ve ever worked at different levels in a large organisation, there are plenty of examples you’ll be familiar with. The first entry-level job you had when you came into an organisation is likely to have had fewer variables and a shorter impact horizon for your decisions than your later, more senior roles. For example, someone working in a team on a construction site laying the foundations for a new building is performing different work to someone leading a construction crew and being concerned with things like materials being ordered on time, the well-being and productivity of individuals, and the whole project moving forward as it should.

Levels of Work, once understood for the first time, is a real light bulb moment. Helping to shine a light on the actual value that an individual role should add to an organisation often entails reflection that opens a whole new world of understanding about work. For me, it helped me to understand my frustration with managers I’ve had in the past who dipped down and tried to work at “my” level.

But be careful.

An example of a process map, using a swimlane structure

How Process Mapping Can Add Value to Your Organisation

By Chally Kacelnik

If you want to understand how your organisation works or the impact of change in a concrete, clear, detailed way, process mapping is an essential tool.

First things first: what is process mapping?

Well, a process is a series of connected activities conducted in order to achieve a particular aim, like procurement or making a customer enquiry. A process map illustrates that process from start to finish (see the header image for an example). It clearly sets out a common understanding of what happens, when it happens, why it happens, and who is involved.

A current state process map illustrates processes as they are. People in different parts of an organisation tend to have differing ideas of how a process works, either based on a theoretical idea of how it should work or based on their perspective from one slice of the process. Capturing the true current state in one place allows you to see how the process works in practice, not in theory.

The vast majority of the time, there’s something that can be improved – usually lots of somethings. Perhaps the process:

  • Has excessive hand offs, repetitions, or bottlenecks
  • Doesn’t fit the organisational operating model or principles
  • Doesn’t take advantage of technological capabilities
  • Is convoluted
  • Places a lot of stress on one or two employees
  • Doesn’t take account of external customer or community perspectives

A future state process map brings together organisational principles, technological capabilities, known data (particularly volumetric data), and learnings from what does and doesn’t work in the current state in order to produce the best possible future state process.

A collection of old fashioned globes in neutral colours

Whizzing to Oz: Global Collaboration on Local Government Reform

LKS Quaero UK Director Aidan Rave recently visited Australia and met with our Australian team. Here are his reflections on the differences and similarities between the UK and Australian local government contexts – and on the value of a global team when it comes to public service reform.

A seven day round trip from the UK to Australia can have a strange effect on the mind. The combination of jet lag, shifting from summer to winter and around 48 hours stuck in a metal tube has an effect on the most seasoned traveller. Making the trip in late June of this year, in the midst of the political upheaval and chaotic post-Brexit vote atmosphere, added a further dimension to the sense of surrealism.

Of course, attending the annual LKS Quaero hui (a Maori term meaning gathering or assembly) was exciting – an opportunity to meet in person colleagues who had previously existed on the end of a phone or as a slightly fuzzy image on Skype. Okay, the opportunity to sample some of McLaren Vale’s finest was probably a factor, too, but a professional should always be prepared to suffer for the cause!

In many ways, the conversation and debate at the hui confirmed a long-held belief that while the structure and culture of local government in the UK and Australia might differ, there are many challenges and opportunities in common and there is much each can learn from the other’s approach. The political spice on the Australian side was enhanced by the fact that day one of the hui coincided with the general election and all the intrigue, upsets, and twists that inevitably ensue (and there were several). Similarly, giving an update from the UK was inevitably going to be dominated by the fall-out from Brexit, the subsequent resignation of the Prime Minister, and impending implosion of the opposition Labour Party. In truth, it all felt just a little bit embarrassing!

While the “big politics” were certainly never far from the group’s collective thoughts, the focus of discussions remained on issues core to the business on both sides of the equator; namely public service reform, restructuring, amalgamation, culture, and leadership.

The impact of the GFC had a more immediate effect on the UK economy and subsequent public spending plans than was the case in Australia. Consequently, shifts towards structural and political reform of councils in the UK, driven in large part by a seismic reduction of around 35% in real terms spending power over the last five years, has meant that the rate of change in the UK has been determined.

Interestingly, as NSW councils embark on their journey of reform, there is some useful UK insight (not to mention a number of mistakes made and hard lessons learned), within the global LKS Quaero knowledge pool that should prove valuable.  In a similar vein, there is a considerable amount of Australian work on systems thinking and leadership, which will be critically important to UK councils as they attempt the next stage of implementation.

Image of Susan Law

Norfolk Island Transition Team win at the 2016 Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development Secretary’s Awards

The team responsible for the Norfolk Island Administration’s transition to Norfolk Island Regional Council have won a 2016 Secretary’s Award from the Australian Government’s Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development. LKS Quaero’s Managing Director, Susan Law, was Transition Manager for the reform program.

The team was nominated:

For outstanding leadership in the reform of the Norfolk Island Administration to a Norfolk Island Regional Council that supports the implementation of the Australian Government’s Norfolk Island Reform Agenda.

The Secretary’s Awards honour individual officers and teams who have contributed to the department through leadership, excellence, personal commitment and professionalism.

Congratulations, Susan!

A silhouetted group gather around an outcrop, the sun low in a yellow sky.

From Narrow to Innovative Leadership and Diverse Organisations

By Chally Kacelnik

At LKS Quaero’s Meeting the Challenge of Amalgamation forum in Sydney in February this year, speaker Jeff Tate shared insights from his extensive experience as a local government expert and former CEO of two South Australian Councils. Listening to Jeff, I was interested in how he tackled gender imbalance in leadership roles when he was a CEO.

I caught up with Jeff after his talk and asked how he found a solution for something so pervasive and that affects people’s whole career paths.

The answer was really simple: you choose candidates based on their skills and capabilities, not a narrow range of previous job titles. You pick the person who’s best for the job, who is not always the person who has had the most normative career path.

This means that you get the right people in the right roles, with a range of life experience and ideas, and you get a more robust, more interesting organisation. In fact, you can apply this sort of thinking to many things in organisational life. If you critically examine your assumptions rather than retreating to the safety of what’s always been done before, you end up with the best possible organisation. This can’t be done by only looking at what’s already been done, but by considering all the possibilities.

So why do we make assumptions about people’s value that limit both people and organisations?

From a bird's eye view, a computer monitor and scattered paper, phone, and writing implements. Forearms are shown, with the right hand holding a pink highlighter.

A Fresh Approach to Business Planning for the Next Financial Year

By Peter White

Thinking about how your business planning has gone for this financial year?

Does this sound familiar then?

Here we go again!

Looks like I’m going to have to turn myself inside out again to produce a business plan for next year!

Why does it have to be so complex? No one really reads it after it’s been approved anyway.

I’d better get the one I did last year out of my bottom drawer to see if we achieved any of the “stuff” that we said we were going to do last year.

Oh dear, looks we didn’t do all the “stuff” we said we were going to do, but we did do a lot of other great “stuff’’!

Oh! It looks like we didn’t deliver on our promises. Hope we can do better next year.

Best get started on the plan. Hmm, now where is that business planning template?

Do you get frustrated by the business planning process? Do you feel it is a waste of time? Do you feel like you are doing lots of “stuff, ” but not turning your intention into reality? Do you find it hard to keep track of all the things that you committed to in the plan?

Well, if you’re thinking of using the same old process and expecting better results this time around, you are taking an unnecessary risk.

When I talk to clients, I say business planning doesn’t have to be complicated in the extreme. Part of the challenge is setting off from a sensible platform. For this, we have the Plan-Do-Check-Adjust process, which in my view is “Agile” thinking at its best. Here’s how I approach the planning process.

Image of Chris Stratten

Council Transition Support Expert Interview: Chris Stratten, human resources/organisational development expert

LKS Quaero is offering a complete package of Council Transition Support for amalgamating NSW Councils. This is the last in a series of interviews in which our transition expert team members pass on some key nuggets of advice.

Chris Stratten is an experienced HR and Organisational Development Manager of many years’ standing, with specialist knowledge of industrial relations matters. He is an experienced manager of change in both public and private sector organisations in areas including HR/OD diagnosis and strategy development, industrial/workplace relations, leadership development and coaching, and service delivery analysis. Here is his advice for HR/OD managers of amalgamating Councils.

What are the key human resources/organisational development challenges for amalgamating Councils in NSW?

One of the things that many organisations stumble upon is the engagement process. Most of the time, managers get around the room and decide on a plan of action, but fail to establish a robust engagement process. This should involve both engagement within management and engagement between management and staff. I call it engagement, not communication, because it has to go both ways. The organisation has to get feedback from unions, staff, management, and the community. There has to be good planning for how the organisation engages with these stakeholders and how to get their concerns noted and readily addressed. From an HR viewpoint, HR traditionally has to pick up a lot of mess because this is not done well up front. All messages need to reach employees and other stakeholders in a readily understandable way, not just reach the leaders.

The amalgamation process needs to be managed by a team, and the HR manager needs to be part of that team throughout that process, on both the engagement and leadership sides. They need to have carriage of establishing and monitoring the engagement processes. HR managers should also be there in order to ensure that industrial instruments are adhered to – in an advisory capacity to the leadership team, not as the leader. This is vital for ensuring that decisions are made with understanding and ownership of the line management.

Peter White

Council Transition Support Expert Interview: Peter White, leadership and culture specialist

LKS Quaero is offering a complete package of Council Transition Support for amalgamating NSW Councils. This is part of a series of interviews in which our transition expert team members pass on some key nuggets of advice.

Peter White is an experienced organisational leader with demonstrated leadership ability and a proven track record in developing employees and creating a constructive culture where working productively and continuous improvement form a way of life. Peter has an electrical engineering background, specialising in large and medium heavy industry environments. He is an Associate for LKS Quaero specialising in training, leadership, and culture. Here is his advice for leaders of amalgamating Councils in NSW.

What are the key leadership and culture challenges in the amalgamations in NSW?

The culture itself will be a big challenge. Many Councils are likely to be experiencing a passive defensive culture, meaning many will be dependent on the leadership to tell them what to do or they will be keeping their heads down, not wanting to be noticed and hoping it will all go away so things can get back to how they used to be.

A silo mentality is also common, where people are only interested in their own “patch”. A common issue here is the belief that knowledge is power, leading people to think ‘I will keep the information to myself so I will be protected’. In order to implement sustainable change, these silos will need to be identified and broken down. This can be achieved through a positive experience, provided the team members have clarity around their futures and are kept well informed of what is happening around them.

New Councils will also have to assess the skill, will, and drill of leaders at all levels. If an organisation needs to transition from the current state to a new desired future state, then it is important to determine if the organisation has the right person in the right role doing the right work. Another way to look at this is to determine if the person has the skill to do the work – have they been adequately trained? Do they have the will – do they want to do the work of the role, are they engaged in the organisation, and are they prepared to deal with difficult issues, including performance management? And finally, do they have the drill (or discipline)? They might have the skill and the will, but do they actually do it religiously every time? Are they walking the walk and talking the talk? Do they clearly demonstrate their commitment through their actions and comments?

Beyond the capability of leaders to deliver change, a major challenge is the uncertainty of what the future holds for individuals throughout the organisation. A lack of role clarity will compound this. For those in temporary roles in particular, there will be some reluctance to make key decisions for the future.

Image of Alan Rushbrook

Council Transition Support Expert Interview: Alan Rushbrook, local government finance expert

LKS Quaero is offering a complete package of Council Transition Support for amalgamating NSW Councils. This is part of a series of interviews in which our transition expert team members pass on some key nuggets of advice.

Alan Rushbrook is a local government financial specialist whose experience goes well beyond financial management as he has sandwiched his financial career with managing community service activities. He brings a strong reputation for leading teams and providing robust policy advice. His varied experience in local government, both in senior management roles and as a consultant, in large city Councils and small rural Councils, has provided him with many skills, particularly in the financial management, corporate support, and community services functional areas. Alan is a Fellow of the Australian Society of CPAs, qualified in Myers Briggs administration and Juran quality management. Here is his advice for CFOs and other leaders of amalgamating Councils.

What opportunities are there for finance teams during an amalgamation?

Amalgamations are the time when finance staff need to shine. It is when our skill sets can provide enormous value to the new organisation.

Why do I say this? It is a time of change. Often inertia and conventional wisdom dominate Council decision making, making change hard: not just difficult to do, but hard to get started. So when there is a changing environment, your first impediment to change is overcome!

It will be a time of immense work, but be sure to take time to think strategically for your Council, your team, and yourself. It can be too easy to get caught up in the focus of moving systems, people, registers, etc, etc. and not raising your vision beyond your desktop. Take time to think beyond the next meeting.

Be clear about what you want to see change, whether it be the strategic financial direction of Council, the structure of your department, or a particular process. The favourite for me in the past has been to challenge some of those areas of waste or inefficiency that have just been accepted or have been protected. Even if many of the players haven’t changed, sometimes they may not be so passionate or committed about their programs or activities as they once were. When things don’t have the usual balance, it might be a good time to get some things changed.

Also, there will be some untied dollars around. Have a think about what you or your team could use that you haven’t been able to get funding for in the past. Set systems up for the future as best you can.

John Cawley

Council Transition Support Expert Interview: John Cawley, structural design and change management expert

LKS Quaero is offering a complete package of Council Transition Support for amalgamating NSW Councils. This is part of a series of interviews in which our transition expert team members pass on some key nuggets of advice.

John Cawley is a change management and structural design expert, with expertise in organisational and business function system design. A qualified and highly experienced mechanical engineer and manager, John has led a distinguished career as senior executive in vocational education and in private industry. He is a proven project manager across complex projects and an experienced Lean practitioner and facilitator. John is a former General Manager of a major supply organisation to the automotive and appliance industry sectors, with extensive experience in highly technical robotic automation manufacturing facilities. He has international presentation experience in new and emerging technology, green technologies, and logistics. Here is his structural design and change management advice for leaders of amalgamating NSW Councils.

What are the key systems design and change management challenges in an amalgamation?

The key change management challenge is to establish a cultural fit. Some years ago, when a manufacturing conglomerate I worked for acquired a group of companies, it took ten years to wind out the old culture and wind in the acceptance of the new culture. In order to successfully establish a new Council, you have to properly establish a new culture much faster than that. What that means is drilling down into knowing people: what are their values? Establishing the mission and values is really important: the mission establishes the boundaries around what you can and can’t do and the values determine who you are. Strategic planning is really the starting point for determining the strategic and cultural fit.

The key challenge of designing a system is to separate out the system and the process. Once you have your strategic plan, you need to link it in with the operational plan. Underpinning that are your systems and processes. Identify what systems you currently have and determine if you have the right ones to achieve your operational plan, the right processes to enable it, and the right people to drive it through. Those are the three crucial things: systems, processes, and people.